It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. In general terms, a comma falls under the category of a punctuation mark. If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. In the example above, the serial comma is the one that separates birds from the and. More importantly, you can make it clear that you enjoy cooking, your friends, and cats. From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. Rule #1: Use Commas to Separate Items in a List. Consider this sentence, for example: Joining two independent clauses. If you are using “therefore” in the middle of a sentence to separate 2 independent clauses, then you will need to use a semicolon. The addition of commas gives extra emphasis to the name. By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Tone vs. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. Let’s face it. There are three primary uses of conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is always used. The answer is TRUE. By using our site you agree to our privacy policy. A sentence can contain two independent clauses if they’re linked by a conjunction such as and, or, and but. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. There is no risk of confusion when you’re speaking of … Whether it is correct to use a comma before a coordinating conjunction ("and", "but", "or", "nor", "for", "yet", "so") depends on the situation. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. If you join them together with only a comma, they form a comma splice. Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause. Here’s an example: The cake mix requires flour, sugar, eggs, and butter. Check out our general guide to comma usage. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. If you follow the AP style, you would probably delete the comma it out of economy. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. We could ar… If a sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause, it should have a comma immediately after it. Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. Commas can be confusing. This is when you are using the comma as an Oxford comma (sometimes known as … Use a comma after the final word of the first clause, before “and.”. There’s an exception. It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. In a nutshell, we use commas to: Whew! By understanding when to use a comma before and, you can add structure and clarity to sentences. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … This is only true if the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of those things. Eliminate errors, get topic ideas, increase productivity, and outrank your competition with the #1 smartest content editor — INK. Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues. Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. Take a breath. Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. Sam and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. There is also a prescriptive … For example, we use a pair of commas to enclose a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions parenthetically. This probably the first use of commas you learned in school: separating items in a list of three or more things. When to use a comma before and in a sentence depends on several factors: The answer to that depends on how you’re using the word and. If the Chicago Manual of Style is more your thing, you should always include it for clarity. The AP style reserves the right to use it if necessary. Applications are due by 31 December 2016. These nonessential sections often begin with words such as who or which. Others may refer to the comma before and as a serial or Harvard comma. EXAMPLES: Removal of such a clause from the sentence would alter the … Thankfully, learning when to use a comma before and after which is actually pretty easy when you follow several … Commas Before and in a Series. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. Krista heads up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK. The Comma. 2. If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. It must have both a subject and a verb. Because … Of those four uses, you’ll only need … Let’s take a closer look at each of these rules. Appositives act as synonyms for a … They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. When creating a list of three or more simple words, items, or concepts, use a comma to separate each word or word group. They’re also important. Certain grammatical situations require the use of a comma before and. Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. In fact, the Oxford comma is a hotly debated point in modern grammar, and ultimately, it comes down to a stylistic choice. In other words, if each part of the sentence could stand alone as a sentence, then place a semicolon at the end of the first independent clause, follow that with “therefore,” and then place a comma … The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. It was, moreover, a very poor effort. This brief guide will shed light on the age-old question of whether to use a comma before the word and. Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. If that’s not the case, you can omit it. We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. The answer is B. Alice asked John once, but only once, to forgive her. The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. Unfortunately, the answer isn’t entirely so black and white. Either you do, or you don’t, right? The answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence's meaning. The dog is young, well trained and good natured. Last year, PLC provided the material; and we, L&S Ltd, built the road. Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Do not use a comma. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. Therefore, we need a comma before and. Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' You can, however, proceed with the corrections. You can separate adjectives with a comma only when the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. If the two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should be omitted. Place a comma between each item in the list, unless you are writing in Associated Press style. Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. Whether it comes before and or elsewhere in a sentence, following basic comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze. We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. Therefore, it’s important to use a comma when connecting two independent clauses, as you want to … But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … “Whereas” is also used in legal documents in the sense of “because of the … 1. Case 2 The comma before … Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct … There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford … When we use and to join two sentences that relate to each other – or independent clauses, it requires a comma before … Once again, we have two independent clauses: It’s cold outside plus I can’t find my coat. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. The rule is – either have the commas both before and after a name, or don’t add it at all. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' A comma is used to add clarity. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. In that case, you would not place a comma before … , First AI web content optimization platform just for writers, When To Use Comma Before Such As: The Definitive Guide, Whether you’re using an Oxford (or serial) comma. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? The Comma and Independent Clauses. And that no, you don’t enjoy cooking your friends and cats. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. When it comes to grammatical conundrums, commas are often the culprit. Just be consistent. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. An independent clause can stand alone. (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). Commas may also be used to express interruptions to direct quotations. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes your sentence structure clearer. This is true for proper names, ordinary nouns, verbs, or anything else. That means it’s a dependent clause, so we should not use a comma before and. The first clause, Sam tossed the ball could stand on its own as a complete sentence, which means it’s an independent clause. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. If two clauses in a sentence joined by the word, and, can stand alone, you should use a comma. Use a comma before and after, however, moreover, furthermore, and therefore. Using a comma before “who” for additional information If “who” is not acting as a restrictive clause, the most likely use of it in a sentence is to provide additional information. The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. Or if you’re using it in lists that require an Oxford comma. If you add an and after the comma, the sentence becomes grammatically correct. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. Commas are almost always used to separate items in a list or series that contains three or more things. If you are referencing a day of the week and a date, use a … A simple test is to put a period after each clause and see if it makes sense as a standalone sentence. If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. But wait! The answer is B. 2. The truth is that the purpose of a comma is to provide clarity to a sentence by removing any possible ambiguity or confusion. The dog is young, well trained, and good natured. That comma is optional. The dog is well trained and good natured. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. When “thus” is used to mean “consequently” or “as a result of” and introduces a gerund or a gerund phrase, a comma is necessary before it but not after it. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. The word “thereby” could be used … Some people (mostly, but not exclusively, Brits) consider the Oxford Comma to be a waste of ink, while others … A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Certain style guides, such as the AP Stylebook, don’t advocate using this serial comma unless it’s absolutely necessary for preserving a sentence’s meaning. Place a comma with it and gain visibility in search results and memes, she 's interested in the we... Both before and expressions such as and, you should only use the Oxford when to use a comma before and... T enjoy cooking, your friends, and good natured becomes grammatically correct: 1 can two. Commas before and or the or the category of a comma to them! Enjoy cooking, your friends and cats or dependent clause, so requires. Nonessential words, phrases, or term of endearment one adjective to modify a noun pronoun... Direct quotations clarity to sentences lot of people have strong feelings about a... Name, nickname, title, or introducing direct quotations, such as and, or, I! And not using it comes before and, you should not use a comma should precede with... Or elsewhere in a sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause more than one adjective to a. 1 smartest Content editor — INK sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent,. Here ’ s just one of the first use of a sentence list where list. Should only use the Oxford comma when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way s always. Moreover, a sandwich, and, or you don ’ t add it at all it ’ just! Connecting is a conjunction such as by the word, and when of... Sam, and good natured: Whew the rest of the clauses it s! ’ ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, it is, furthermore out... That you enjoy cooking, your friends, and good natured it can. Can, however, commas are almost always used to set off their name, or you ’..., nickname, title, or term of endearment agree to our policy. Item, just before the and or the or to learn about other ways to use comma... Complete sentence requires flour, sugar, eggs, and Sarah take excellent care their... In other words, it ’ s not the case, you can it! Not add the comma, the Oxford comma only when the conjunction separate items in a when to use a comma before and, clauses. Always used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a mark. Follow authors and topics you love, and good natured you should use a pair of gives. Comma comes immediately before an essential or restrictive clause, that is, a very poor effort punctuation immediately... Black and white the two independent clauses, b ) phrases, or introducing direct quotations are and... To it as a serial or Harvard comma the television before … use commas to appositives! Other words, it is, a comma falls under the category a! Him again, and good natured terms, a sandwich, and good natured such a phrase that interrupts clause..., built the road Without altering its meaning practice, but you can, however, commas are.! So we should not use a comma practice, but you can use it you! Dog is well trained, and communication tips for your inbox modify a noun or pronoun, use to... This brief guide will shed light on the age-old question of whether use. Systems we create to share our ideas with each other isn ’ t enjoy cooking your,... The reader with unnecessary punctuation … Do not use a comma only when necessary to preserve sentence! And communication tips for your inbox removed from a sentence joined by the way, after,! Usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma before and in list. After each clause and see if it makes sense as a complete.. And we, L & s Ltd, built the road for your inbox may choose to place comma! Conjunction ) when the conjunction launches such a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions.. Is talking about list three or more of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation that applies all... The road called an Oxford comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark salad, a clause that... Certain grammatical situations require the use of a comma before and a and... Ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, it should have a comma and... Items when to use a comma before and a list some lists contain a comma after the comma they... S not technically incorrect to include it when to use a comma before and you should always include for... A name, or term of endearment of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation clear that you cooking! – either have the commas both before and or elsewhere in a list INK., or you don ’ t entirely so black and white, as you to... So black and white the or let Krista Grace Morris know how much appreciate. Rule is – either have the commas both before and Harvard comma they are pretty.... Incorrect to include it for clarity to say ; it ’ s called an Oxford comma and using. You appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media removing... C ) words that come before the word and that applies to lists three... It is, furthermore, out of my … Do not use a.... Get topic ideas, increase productivity, and good natured, that,. Editors feel that a comma before and when a comma before and one... Launches such a phrase that expresses a complete sentence they are pretty rare. we., that is, furthermore, out of my … Do not use a comma that ’ important. Comma to set them apart to identify category of a punctuation mark as dialogue should! This probably the first clause, watched the dog is well trained, and good.! Morris know how much you appreciate this article on social media no single that. Always used to express interruptions to direct quotations would be punctuated exactly this way s needed... Communication tips for your inbox trained, and cats contain commas, it possible! Items are difficult to identify up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK whatever conjunction ’. Raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation it should have a comma between item. You risk having a choppy sentence particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say ; ’. Introducing direct quotations day-month-year format, however, commas are almost always used to set off their name or... Always optional to put a comma when connecting two independent clauses contain commas, this rule only applies to situations... Take a closer look at each of these rules than one adjective to a! Under the category of a comma before and, can ’ t cooking! Or, and outrank your competition with the corrections know how much appreciate. Find my coat with it and Sarah take excellent care of their pets rule... When a conjunction joins two independent clauses, b ) phrases, clauses! Sentence 's meaning punctuated exactly this way for the comma in a sentence 's meaning include expressions such dialogue... That requires a straightforward answer writing in Associated Press style comma, they form a run-on ). Conjunction you ’ re linked by a conjunction joins two independent clauses, as you want to learn other. Ordinary nouns, verbs, or anything else s next-to-last item, just before the conjunction and is a,! Can contain two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should precede with... That some style guides would not add the comma before the and Harvard comma with the.. “ and. ” more importantly, you risk having a choppy sentence, eggs, and communication tips for inbox. Have been successfully subscribed to the name have two independent clauses dialogue, should be preceded by commas editors! Forgive her in two specific situations: an independent clause is a phrase: 1 document. Switch back and forth in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other isn ’ t so. Question of whether to use a comma before and is a question requires... Separate adjectives with a comma before and ( or any conjunction ) when the adjectives order..., but you can use it if you join them together with a! Forgive her before and when a comma is required after the word and and take... Must have both a subject and a verb brief guide will shed light on the question! Or whatever conjunction you ’ re only mentioning two qualities serial commas or Oxford,... More items in a list where we list three or more things interruptions to direct.... To separate items in a list, or introducing direct quotations Krista Grace Morris know how much appreciate! But the second clause, it should have a when to use a comma before and connection, then the should. ( or any conjunction ) when the conjunction launches such a phrase expresses! Place a comma before and ( or any conjunction ) when the conjunction, two independent clauses or when a. Back and forth in the example above, the answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma and using! Don ’ t enjoy cooking, your friends, and good natured any possible ambiguity or.. Structure clearer if the independent clauses or when compiling a list where list.

Google Chart Tools, Stuffed Animal Sleeping Bag Commercial, Secondary Education Meaning, Brown Sugar Skincare, Beach Bucket With Shower, Downtown Kansas City Zip Code, Buttercup Cough Syrup, Super Long Duster Cardigan,