Additional rules for the audits of publicly traded companies are made by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), which was established as a result of SOX in 2002. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) is a nonprofit corporation created by the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 to oversee the audits of public companies and other issuers in order to protect the interests of investors and further the public interest in the preparation of informative, accurate and independent audit reports. A public company with a class of securities registered under either Section 12 or which is subject to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”) must file reports with the SEC (“Reporting Requirements”).The underlying basis of the Reporting Requirements is to keep shareholders and the markets informed on a regular basis in a transparent manner. With 573 public company audits, EY audits 28% of Large Accelerated Filers. The main reasons for the audit are to provide reasonable assurance that the financial statements are free from material misstatements and errors and to ensure that all events that can adversely affect the company have been disclosed. These companies require more audits because investment firms and individual investors have a financial stake in the company’s financial returns. In addition, investors may increase their focus on outside time commitments of non-executive board chairs and audit committee chairs, especially in the wake of a corporate crisis. The vast majority of Large Accelerated Filers – almost 90% – are audited by the Big Four. Publicly held companies typically face more audits based on requirements from government regulatory agencies and stock exchanges. The In-Depth Guide to Public Company Auditing provides more detail about the audit process th Overboarding by Public Company Directors: 2019 Update. The impact of the declining number of U.S. public companies is partially offset by the recent rise of audit fees for larger public companies (i.e., accelerated filers). Publicly run companies: Public companies sell their shares of stock to investors and must be audited by independent auditors. For private companies considering going public, or in the process of preparing an Initial Public Offering (IPO), we review registration statements, audit financial statements, assist with audits, and participate in underwriting due diligence. A: The Commission's rules relating to listed company audit committees (see Release No. A 2019 analysis by Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) in the United States observed that the big four accounting firms bungled almost 31% of their audits since 2009. The Big Four, together with BDO and Grant Thornton, audit the greatest number of Accelerated Filers, accounting for over 66%. The In-Depth Guide to Public Company Auditing is designed for investors and those interested in understanding the external audit process for public companies and role the audit plays in our capital markets. Audit and Accounting Agreed Upon Procedures Attestation Engagements Audit Compilation Employee Benefit Plan Audit Financial Planning and Analysis Global Investment Performance Standards IFRS Income tax accounting and ASC 740 assistance Internal Audit Public Company / PCAOB Audit Revenue Recognition Review SOC Examinations Audits typically involve a few universal principles for public companies. 33-8220, "Standards Related to Listed Company Audit Committees") require audit committees to approve all audit services provided to the company, whether provided by the principal auditor or other firms.