Soil microorganisms are diverse, although they share functions during the decomposition of organic matter. The bacteria and fungi play a very significant role in plant litter decomposition and humus formation. Evaluation of ecological succession of microbial communities in organic matter decomposition in mangrove plant in the State of São Paulo ... they have high productivity and are known as areas of production and export of organic matter, and also provide shelter, food and location for reproduction of various marine animals. ... microbial group(s) are responsible for a major proportion of the nitrogen fixed globally in symbiosis with higher plants. Bacteria is even useful in the degradation of oil spills. Plant litter decomposition is not a purely chemical or physical process, it is basically a biological one resulting from the diverse activities of microorganisms, protozoa and various other soil organisms like insects and worms. 2016a, b). A &D (actinomycetes & fungi) ... Mycorrhizae involve a symbiotic combination of certain bacteria and plant … Although some studies tend to confirm the dominance of fungi in litter decomposition in situ (Schneider et al. Although the decomposition processes of plant residues in rice field soil has been documented, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities involved are poorly understood. leaf litter decomposition; reciprocal transplant; bacteria; fungi; elevation gradient; Microbial communities are the engines of decomposition (), a fundamental process regulating the carbon cycle.In ecosystems, microbial decomposition converts detritus into CO 2 and releases nutrients for plant growth. 2010). Understanding plant litter decomposition in broad-leaved forests is important because it influences the geochemical cycles of nutrients and represents a vital link in the global carbon cycle. Colonies of bacteria begin the process of decomposition shortly after the death of an organic life form, be it plant, animal or human. Although the decomposition processes of plant residues in rice field soil has been documented, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities involved are poorly understood. Thus, preferences for soil conditions and litter quality were explored to understand their niche partitioning. 2012), others indicate that the role of bacteria in the decay of dead plant biomass is also important (López-Mondéjar et al. Factors That Influence the Decomposition Rate of Organic Matter in the Soil. The action is essential for the dead matter to be managed. Bacteria play an important role in litter decomposition, especially late in the decomposition process, when they become abundant. Healthy soil is living soil, teeming with living things from microscopic bacteria to earthworms. 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